Network Protocols

Of course this should be impossible, but well-designed networks are built to cope with “impossible” conditions.At this point, it’s possible that no more headers are needed. If your computer happens to have a direct phone line connecting it to the destination computer, or to a gateway, it may simply send the datagrams out on the line . The Internet is a collection of networks, including the Arpanet, NSFnet, regional networks such as NYsernet, local networks at a number of University and research institutions, and a number of military networks. The term “Internet” applies to this entire set of networks. The subset of them that is managed by the Department of Defense is referred to as the “DDN” .

  • The Transmission Control Protocol is the “TCP” of TCP/IP and enables network hosts to establish connections which may be used to exchange data streams.
  • TCP/IP implementations differ in the approach they take to deciding on datagram size.
  • It is possible for a node in the database to be marked as an “alias” for another node.
  • The Department will endeavour to keep such delays to a minimum.

TCP/IP is designed for use with many different kinds of network. Unfortunately, network designers do not agree about how big packets can be. Some very fast networks have much larger packet sizes.


There are a range of different protocols to do different jobs on the network. Header Files – The header contains information that is used by the protocols and layers. – A header has several distinct units of information known as fields. – Each datagram contains a header as well as the actual data. Gateway Address A Gateway Address is the IP address through which a particular network, or host on a network, may be reached. If one network host wishes to communicate with another network host, and that host is not located on the same network, then a gateway must be used.

That is, when they want to send a message, they give the message to TCP. Because TCP and IP take care of all the networking details, the applications protocols can treat a network connection as if it were a simple byte stream, like a terminal or phone line. So far, we have described only connections that use TCP. Recall that TCP is responsible for breaking up messages into datagrams, and reassembling them properly. However in many applications, we have messages that will always fit in a single datagram.

1 Computer Networks

The domain system is not limited to finding out Internet addresses. The node can have records that define a number of different properties. Examples are Internet address, computer type, and a list of services provided by a computer. A program can ask for a specific piece of information, or all information about a given name. It is possible for a node in the database to be marked as an “alias” for another node.

In fact, as with all of life, network traffic is only managed successfully through the use of well-defined, universal rules known as protocols. The IPv4 protocol however will soon be upgraded to the IP version 6 internet protocol. The reason for this upgrade is that there is need to generate more IP addresses to allow more devices to have a unique IP address on the network. This research lead to the definition of the TCP/IP Protocols which are the underlying protocols for all Internet communication.

Introduction to the Internet Protocols

Let’s investigate how packet switching is used to transfer data between two devices. This document is a brief introduction to TCP/IP, followed by advice on what to read for more information. It can give you a reasonable idea of the capabilities of the protocols.